Cambridge Agreement

26 August, 1629

"the whole Government, together with the patent for the said Plantation" shall go with them to the new settlement.

In effect, they are resolved to establish full independence of the plantation from any authority in England.

The full Court of the Company, within a few days and after much discussion, agreed to this proviso, no doubt influenced by the signatories’ resolve, and the fact that their willingness to settle the plantation hinged upon this point.

Previous patents had defaulted due to lack of action, and so the Company’s adventurers as a whole acquiesced to this loss of their authority to those of the Company who were ready to risk their lives and the lives of their families in an attempted settlement in New England. A majority of the adventurers, Puritans of a like mind, supported them.

Their foresight in taking the Charter with them to the new settlement proved crucial when, in 1635, King Charles and Archbishop Laud sought to destroy it and force a viceregal dictatorship upon the settlers. Their efforts were thereby delayed until Parliamentary victories made the Massachusetts Bay Commonwealth secure in its rights.

via The Winthrop Society: Descendants of the Great Migration.

via Agreement of the Massachusetts Bay Company at Cambridge, England

John Humfrey

under date of September 30, 1630, Winthrop wrote:

“About two in the morning, Mr. Isaac Johnson died ; his wife, the lady Arbella, of the house of Lincoln, being dead about one month before.”

In a footnote on the same page, Mr, Savage explains that the Lady Arbella, the wife of Isaac Johnson, was the daughter of the third Earl of Lincoln and that her sister, Susan, married John Humfrey.

under date of July, 1634, this all-important record:

“Mr. Humfrey and the lady Susan, his wife, one of the Earl of Lincoln’s sisters, arrived here.”

The journal contains many other allusions to Humfrey, but this is enough to establish the identity of John Humfrey, the Massachusetts magistrate, with John Humfrey, the husband of the Lady Susan.

John Humfrey was one of the signatories of the Cambridge Agreement. He was the treasurer of the Dorchester Company, which established an unsuccessful settlement on Massachusetts Bay in the 1620s, and was deputy governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company from 1629 to 1630. He was unable to accompany Governor Winthrop on the 1630 fleet that brought the first large-scale migration to Massachusetts, and was consequently replaced by Thomas Dudley as deputy governor shortly before the fleet sailed. He came to Massachusetts in 1634, where he served as a magistrate.

via Full text of “John Humfrey, Massachusetts magistrate : did he marry the daughter of the third Earl of Lincoln!”.

In 1640 Lord Saye and Sele offered, and Humphreys accepted, appointment as governor of the Providence Island colony.

Lord Say and Sele

via Collins’s Peerage of England; Genealogical, Biographical, and Historical, Volume 7 pages 17 to 39

William de Say son and heir was Lord of Berling Seale &c in Kent and in 1260 Governor of the castle of Rochester and having espoused Sybyl daughter of John Marshall of Len ton was by her father of an only son at his death in 1272 and also of a daughter Agnes the wife of Sir Alexander de Cheney William de Say the only son and heir of William had summons to parliament on June 8th 1294 and departing this life in 1295 left by Mary his wife an only son Geoffrey de Say the fourth of that name who had summons to parliament in 1314 and at his death 1322 had an only son and heir by Idonea his wife daughter of William and sister and heir of Thomas Lord Leybourne Geoffrey only son had summons to parliament from 1326 to 1350 was admiral of the fleet and made a Knight Banneret 1336 He married Maud daughter of Guy de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick and by her was at his death in 1359 father of 1 William de Say who had summons to parliament from 1362 to 1369 and by a Beatrice daughter of Sir Thomas Bruce his wife had two children viz John who died unmarried 1383 and Elizabeth who was successively wife to John de Fal vesley and Sir William Heron but had issue by neither of them and died in 1428 2 Idonea the wife of John third Lord Clinton 3 Elizabeth who was wedded to Thomas de Aldone but brought no children And 4 Joan who was married to Sir William Fienes after whose death she espoused Stephen de Valence and became coheir to her brother Sir William Fienes only son of the said Sir William Fienes by Joan de Say was b Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1 297 as also in 1300 c and in 6 Henry IV was found to be d son of William son of John Fienes and Joan his wife third sister and coheir to William de Say He had to wife Elizabeth daughter and heir of William Batisford by Margery heir to Simon Peplesham and by her had issue two sons I Sir Roger who by Elizabeth his wife daughter to John Holland left a son Richard who marrying Joan daughter and heir of Thomas Lord Dacre was declared Lord Dacre in 37 Henry VI See that title in Vol VI a MS St George predict c Rot Fin 1 Henry IV m 3r VOX VII b Rot Fin 20 Richard II m 25 1 Ibid 6 Henry IV m 7 C LORD SAY AND SELE 1

James Fiennes

Lord Saye and Sele

The epitome of a loyal Lancastrian servant, James Fiennes participated in Henry V’s Agincourt campaign in 1415. He then took part in the Norman battles and sieges throughout the reign of Henry V and into the early reign of his successor, Henry VI.

He was present at the coronation of Henry VI in Paris in 1430, and continued to establish his power base in Kent. By 1440, Fiennes was one of the more wealthy and powerful men in England. He took part in the founding of Kings and Eton colleges and was frequently the recipient of lands and titles from the crown.

Fiennes was given the office of Warden of the Cinque Ports and was created Baron Saye and Sele, in addition to being made chamberlain of the royal household.

Although the barony of Saye had been in his family many years previously, his elder brother Roger held a better claim to the title. Fiennes took the title Lord Sele from a manor he owned in Sevenoaks.

via Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Lord of the manor

The significance of King’s College to its founder, King Henry VI, is perhaps most clearly indicated by the College’s foundation charter. Firstly, the illumination on the first membrane of this extremely large parchment document depicts members of the House of Lords pleading for its foundation, and secondly, it bestowed upon the College an incredible amount of land.

King’s College became the lord of the manor for many of the estates it had been given and those which it subsequently obtained. This title indicated wealth and privilege, and it carried rights and responsibilities.

The lord of the manor had freehold ownership of the land, which could then be leased long-term to others under a system called copyhold (because the owner had a copy of the court roll recording the conveyance).

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries land was gradually enfranchised to the tenants (converted into freehold, the model of ownership in use today), but certain manorial rights were often retained.

Rectorial manors came with chancel repair liability, and King’s College still pays for chancel repair in some parishes where they are no longer Lords of the Manor.

via Estates: Lord of the manors | King’s College, Cambridge.